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FARM MECHANISATION IN GROUNDNUT CULTIVATION

   Groundnut is an important oil seed crop in Krishnagiri and cultivated in area of 10,037 hectares & with a production of 2.1 lakh qtl. The productivity of groundnut in the district is 20.97 qtl per hectare under irrigation while it is 15.2 qtl per hectare under rainfed conditions.
   Traditional methods of field operations require huge number of labour and more time, ultimately lead to increase in cost of cultivation. Acute shortage of labour is experience now a days during field operations due to increased industrialization and other opportunities for labour like migration of labour to urban areas for better-paid employment coupled with policy changes like implementation of MGNREGA has made a profound impact on labour availability in the rural areas. In addition, labour shortage problems are being faced by farmers during peak seasons and labors are available at a higher cost.
   To overcome the shortage of labour and to perform the field operations at right time and to take the advantage of favorable climatic conditions, the farmers can go for farm mechanization by the use of efficient and improved tools, equipment and machines suitable to the soil conditions for groundnut crop cultivation. ‘Farm mechanization’ implies the use of various power sources and improved farm tools and equipment, with a view to reduce the drudgery of the human beings and draught animals, enhance the cropping intensity, precision and timelines of efficiency of utilization of various crop inputs and reduce the losses at different stages of crop production. Therefore, there is a greater need to adopt new farm machinery or to improve the existing farm machinery in groundnut cultivation. For every cultural operation under groundnut, the scientists have developed different farm implements but their reach into the farming communities was found to be very sparse. Hence, KVK decided to extent of awareness, knowledge and adoption of different farm machinery by the farming community in groundnut cultivation and proposed a Front-Line Demonstration on “Farm Mechanization in Groundnut cultivation” during 2019-20.
Plan, Implement and Support:
   The demonstration was conducted in 10 farmers filed at Valluvarpuram village of Krishnagiri taluk. The following machines were demonstrated during FLD.

1. Hand operated decorticator:

   Hand operated groundnut decorticator can be used to shell groundnut pods and to separate kernels. It consists of and oscillating sector with sieve bottom and a handle. Number of hard rubber or cast-iron lined assemblies is fitted in the oscillating sector unit. The groundnut pods are shelled between the oscillating sector and the fixed perforated concave screen by rubbing action. The decorticated shells and kernels fall down through the perforated concave sieve. The kernel and shells are collected at the bottom of the unit and separated manually. Clearance between the concave and oscillating sector is adjustable to suit the different varieties and concave sieves are also replaceable depending upon the pod size. Its overall dimensions are 600 X 350 X 700 mm. the capacity and efficiency of the unit are 50 kg/ha and 98% respectively.

2. Tractor drawn seed cum fertilizer drill:

   Tractor drawn groundnut seed cum fertilizer drill 9 row tractor operated groundnut seed drill with row to row spacing of 30 cm fir timely sowing with mechanical advantage and intercropping fertilizer facility is provided. This is provided with a hopper and seed metering mechanism as the main components. The hopper is divided into boxes each can accommodate 5 kg of seed (total 40 kg). The inclined plate seed metering mechanism gives correct seed to seed distance of 10 cm in a row and maintains the recommended seed rate of 100 kg/ha with optimum plant population of 33 per square meter area. Placement of seed is at proper depth of 4 - 5 cm. the seed damage is negligible and the field capacity is 6 to 7 ha/day and facilitates coverage of large area before the soil moisture is dried up. A 5 cm width covering blade is also attached behind the furrow openers to cover the furrows opened after seed placement. The intercropping of redgram or castor can also be possible using Anantha planter along with groundnut sowing. The spring type cultivator frame of this planter facilitates to work even in stony soils.

3. Tractor drawn inter-cultivation implement:

   A 8 row tractor operated inter - culture implement used for weeding in groundnut crop was demonstrated. Its frame is provided with 8 tynes each tyne attached with T or V - shape sweeps to work in between 30 cm row spacing of the crop without any plant damage. Two small width pneumatic tyres of 8.3 X 28” size need to be fitted to the rear axle of the tractor to run in between rows of the crop instead of normal size tyres to prevent trampling of plants under the tyres. The size of the sweeps range from 4” to 6”. Its field capacity is 4 to 5 ha/day.

4. Groundnut fresh pod thresher:

   It is suitable for stripping of groundnut pods from harvested crop and consists of a wire spike type cylinder powered with 0.25 hp electric motor. Stripping is done by holding the portion of a bunch manually over spiked cylinder. Three persons can work at a time. It is also provided with a blower and sieve for separation of pods from plant stalk, leaves etc. it saves 40% labour, 50% operating time and 30% cost of operation and it also results in 4% reduction in losses compared to conventional method of stripping. It was developed by MYRADA, KVK, Tamil Nadu. Output capacity is 120 kg/ha with 100% stripping efficiency and 98% cleaning efficiency.

OUTPUT:

   The productivity of the groundnut has been increased due to uniform spacing between plant to plant and row to row and depth of planting was maintained after intervention of KVK. The net income also increased due to the reduction in cost of cultivation which resulted in the increased cost benefit ratio. There was 87.50 percent of time saving and 37.50 percent cost saving while adopting Groundnut seed drill for sowing.

S.No Particulars Yield (q/ha) Gross Income Net Income B:C Ratio
1 Before Intervention 12.2 63,203 22,840 1.57
2 After Intervention 14.7 78,550 40,202 2.05

OUTCOME:

   From the Front-Line Demonstrations conducted during the 2019-20 it was found that adoption of Farm mechanization in groundnut cultivation significantly reduced the scarcity of labour. This technology was well received by the farmers due its effective nature. The farmer from the other blocks of Krishnagiri has also been made aware of the performance of farm machineries particularly the Tractor drawn seed sowing machine. Prior to this technology, the only option available with the farmer was to indigenous plough and human power. Mr. Krishnan, progressive farmers bought one tractor drawn seed sowing machine for his farmers group. When he started to use the machine for sowing the depth of planting and population was maintained which could increase his yield.

IMPACT:

   KVK play a vital role in transfer of technology. Any activity can be hastened up through the active participation and encouragement of the members of the society. Our FLD farmers have inclination towards interdependence which strengthens the co-operative spirit among the group members. Hence, the FLD farmers have look forward for formation of fraternities, which helps in improving the positive attitude towards innovation and its adoption. The farm machinery in groundnut can be disseminated effectively among the group members. Due to the continuous effort taken by KVK this technology reached to wider areas. Different extension activities like Method demonstration, Field demonstration, field visits, and publishing extension literatures were done. The adoption percentage is about 78 percentages now from a meager value of 5 percentages.
   Overall, the farm mechanization was found to be very sparse in each operation and there is an ample scope for improving the farm mechanization status in groundnut cultivation. The ultimate goal is to bring out seed to seed farm mechanization so as to enable groundnut cultivation more lucrative.

Natural FARMING

Name and Address of the Farmer : Mr. Govindhasamy
Kalvehalli Village of Kaveripattinam Block,
Krishnagiri District.
+91 99438 04381

Background Information

   Mr. Govindhasamy owns 3 acres of land in Kaveripattinam block. His farm is situated along the channels of Krishnagiri Reservoir Project. The soil fertility improves due to canal irrigation. He cultivates paddy during one season in 1 acre. In 1 acre of land he cultivates papaya and banana. He is maintaining 1 desi cow and 2 cross bred cows. After retiring from Indian Army, he took up Natural farming. He practices and teaches yoga.

KVK Intervention

   Mr. Govindhasamy undertook training on organic farming cultivation under Skill training on “Organic grower” which was organized by our KVK. Further he used to attend all the training related to organic and natural farming conducted by our KVK.
   Even though his well-wishers and friend discouraged him in doing natural farming. With the like-minded friends, he started traditional market (Marabu Sandhai), a platform for marketing of organic products. This market functions every Sunday in a vast ground in prime locality. He was one of the farmer selected for demonstration under the project “Out-scaling of Natural farming”. He was supplied with barrel for the production of organic inputs and other organic inputs. He started producing Jeevamirtham, Gana jeevamirtham and used it for papaya and banana along with vermicompost. He used insect repellent for the pest problem. He could observe that the earthworm population increased in his farm after started using the organic inputs. He avoids chemical fertilizers, fungicide and pesticides. With the guidance of KVK followed staggered planting of banana and papaya and started selling organic papaya and elakki banana. He has transformed his maruti omni car into a “Organic Shop” and sells his products in this vehicle.

Output and outcome

   Since he plants papaya and banana in a staggered manner and due to direct marketing, he could harvest throughout the year and thereby able to get a fair price. He got an average price of Rs. 30/Kg for papaya and Rs. 60/Kg for banana. He got a net profit of Rs. 1,00,000/- from 0.5 acres of papaya and Rs. 80,000/- from 0.5 acres of banana. He established the brand value for his products.
   He is satisfied with the interventions made under Natural farming and continue to adopt these techniques.

Photographs

ASCI training on Organic Farming Papaya under Natural farming

NUTRIGARDEN

1. Situation analysis/Problem statement

   In Krishnagiri district, Schedule caste and Scheduled Tribes population spread over Krishnagiri, Bargur, Veppanapalli, Kelamangalam and Thally blocks. Out of total population, there are 14.22% Scheduled Caste and 1.19 % Scheduled Tribe living in Krishnagiri district. The social economic condition of Scheduled Tribes is poor and majority of the population depends only on forest resources and agriculture for their livelihood.Malnutrition and nutrition related disorders are common health related issues found among all age groups.
   Vitamin A deficiency and iron deficiency (Anaemia), Low Body Mass Index are wide spread in the tribal women, lactating and pregnant mothers.
   The reason behind this low intake of vegetables, fruits and other healthy foods.
   The other factors are poor purchasing power, poor access market, social taboos, ignorance, social cultural habits, large family size, illiteracy, poor knowledge on the concept of healthy diet are the reason. More over tribal women faced several health issues, nutritional disorders.
   Hence the demonstration of nutri garden model is one of the best approaches to attain nutritional security, balanced intake of fruit and vegetables helps to overcome such nutritional disorder and malnutrition problem.
   Mrs. M. Gowri W/o. Mani, Javukpallam Village of Bargur Block, Krishnagiri District poor intake of balanced diet. Her health got deteriorated.
   Tribal women are economically backward and need to be give more awareness on balanced diet and proper consumption of fruit and vegetables, proper training on Nutri Garden concept and its benefits, for reducing risk of malnutrition among the groups in the tribal families.Hence, the KVK has planned to promote nutri garden in Javukpallam villages for the economically weaker section.

2. Plan, Implement and Support

   During 2022-23, Fifteen Scheduled tribal farmers were selected for conducting nutritional survey in Javukpallam village of Bargur block and provided with critical input like native seeds (Brinjal, Tomato, Bhendi, Gourds, Chillies, Cluster beans, Cowpea, Amaranthus, Raddish), Seedlings (Moringa, Papaya, Amla, Guava), Vermicompost and grow bag kits of various dimensions distributed to the selected tribals of Javukpallam Village. They were regularly supported with technical guidance through varioustraining programmes. The training programmes were emphasised with organic method of cultivation, preliminary maintenance of soil health by organic manures like farmyard manure, vermicompost, water management.
   Training conducted on nutri garden are as follows:

Sl. No Date Topic No. of participants
1 23-Jul-23 Nutrigarden 24
2 18-Aug-22 Nutrigarden 30
3 09-Sep-22 Nutritional Campaign and Tree Plantation Programme (Poshan Abhiyan) 200
4 16-Sep-22 Nutrigardening and its Importance 21

3. Outcome

   Mrs. Gowri, based on the nutritional status such as body weight, BMI improved for the past 9 month study. An additional, sustainable net income Rs.1,150/- per month alsoget from the sales of vegetables and greens which satisfies other family needs. At present, sheact as a trainer in and around the tribal areas to promote the concept of nutri garden for maintaining proper health and nutritional security.

4. Impact

A. Nutritional security - improved in terms of bodyweight and HB level of all age groups,
B. Home environment clean and eco-friendly,
C. Increase in savings due to cultivation of nutri garden,
D. Need long term study results to observe the health status among the vulnerable peoples.

4. Photographs

Training and Distribution of critical inputs Nutrigarden in their homestead area

KVK INTERVENTIONS UNDER SCSP DURING 2022-23

1. Domain of the study

   In Krishnagiri district, Schedule caste and Scheduled Tribes population spread in Krishnagiri, Bargur, Veppanapalli, Kelamangalam and Thally blocks. Out of total population, there are 14.22 % Scheduled Caste and 1.19 % Scheduled Tribe living in Krishnagiri district. The social economic condition of Scheduled Tribes is poor and majority of the population depends only on forest resources for their livelihood. They are lacking of awareness on the availability of high yielding varieties in Agriculture, Horticulture crops. Also the unavailability of high yielding varietal seeds force them to go for the available traditional local low yielding varieties in agriculture crops like Finger millets and Horsegram. As the existing low yielding traditional varieties are repeated over the years, the yield obtained from them gets reduced year after year that results in lower profitability. Hence to make sure for the seed availability, KVK has planned to promote the seed production in the villages where the economically weaker section resides under SCSP.

2. KVK Interventions

   During 2022-23, Twenty Scheduled tribes farmers were selected and distributed with 100 kgs of Paiyur2 Ragi seeds in Poomalai Nagar of Bargur block and another 20 farmers were distributed with 100 kgs of Horse gram seeds in Annanagar village of Kelamangalam block. They were supported with technical guidance. Training programmes were also conducted to impart the knowledge and skills on seed production. The training programmes were emphasised with ICM technologies in Horse gram and Ragi.

3. Outcome

   Finger millets Seed production results showed that the average yield recorded from the farmers fields was 15 Qtl/ha with Paiyur2 variety. The net return obtained was Rs.35,000/ha. The total finger millet produced under seed production was 12 tons in 8 hectares.

   Horse gram Seed production results showed that the average yield recorded from the farmers fields was 5 Qtl/ha with Paiyur2 variety. The net return obtained was Rs.18,000/ha. The total horse gram produced under seed production was 2 tons in 4 hectares.

4. Impact

   Initially the finger millet seeds distributed to 20 farmers in an area of 8 ha and Horse gram seeds were distributed to 20 farmers in an area of 4 ha only. The farmers used the seeds produced for their own consumption and the excess quantity were sold and distributed to around 250 farmers which spreads to an area of 100 ha. Similarly the horse gram seeds were also sold and distributed to around 100 farmers which spreads to an area of 40 ha in various blocks of Krishnagiri district. This is supposed to grow up and further spread is expected in future under seed production.

Photographs

Horsegram seeds - Activities under SCSP Ragi seeds - Activities under SCSP

IPM FOR PIN WORM MANAGEMENT IN TOMATO

1. Situation analysis/Problem statement

   Tomato is cultivated in Krishnagiri district throughout the year in an area of 11,000 hectares. The climatic conditions in Krishnagiri district are favourable for higher yield and quality. All private hybrids and improved varieties were cultivated in this district. The tomato grows on practically all soils from light sandy to heavy clay. Light soils are good for an early crop, while clay loam and silt-loam soils are well suited for heavy yields. Tomatoes do best in a soil that has a soil reaction from pH 6.0 to 7.0. If the soil is acidic liming is required. A wide range of insects attack tomato and forms major limiting factor in its successful cultivation and in improvement of yield

   The Tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is one of the global major destructive invasive pests found to be occurring in India in the year 2014. The pest has spread from South America to several parts of Europe, entire Africa and has now spread to India. The plants are damaged by direct feeding on leaves, stems, buds, calyces, young fruit, or ripe fruit and by the invasion of secondary pathogens which enter through the wounds made by the pest. Tuta absoluta has a very high reproduction capability. There are up to 10-12 generations in year in favourable conditions. Damage done to fruits caused direct economic loss. It can cause up to 50% loss of yield and deteriorate the fruit quality under field conditions. In view of growing concern among the people for pesticide contamination along with gaining popularity of organic farming, adoption of Integrated and eco friendly methods of pest management in vegetable crop like tomato has become very important. This would also enable less or no insecticide residue in farm produce above detectable level. Keeping this in consideration, role of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) becomes more relevant particularly in Tomato

2. Plan, Implement and Support

   Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Krishnagiri in collaboration with NBAIR conducted awareness programme in shoolagiri village of Krishnagiri district. A model demonstration was conducted in the year of 2015 -16 and work shop was conducted in shoolagiri village. About 200 farmers participated in this programme. Director of NBAIR was attended as Chief Guest Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Krishnagiri conducted FLD programme on Demonstration on Management of Tomato pin worm at Thottakanavu village of Veppanapalli block and also KVK disseminated IPM technology through various extension activities in various villages of Krishnagiri district. On campus and off campus training programmes were conducted to impart knowledge and skills on IPM among the farmers. During training programmes and field visits emphasis was given on IPM technologies. KVK demonstrated at each selected farmer’s field on IPM technologies viz., cultural practices, botanical pesticides, Yellow sticky traps and pheromone traps with lures. Method demonstration was also done on above technologies. Constant follow up visits, meetings, and other extension activities were organized. The advice about need based pesticides usage was also given during the field visits.

3. Output

   The male adults of T.absoluta trapped by using pheromone trap in demonstrated Thootakanavu village of Veppanapalli block with farmers participation. The Front line demonstrations results showed that the highest yield was recorded in adoption of IPM technologies (75.7 qtl/ha) followed by farmers practice. The net return was highest in IPM demonstrated field (Rs. 1,46,338)than compared to the farmers practice (Rs. 1,05,517). Average of 56.58 adult moths was collected per trap. There was 58.02 percent reduction of Tuta absoluta incidence in fruits over the farmers practice.

4. Outcome

   From the Front Line Demonstrations conducted during the 2018-19 it was found that adoption of IPM technologies significantly reduced the incidence of Tuta absoluta when compared to the farmers practice and also the quality and marketability of the fruits got increased. The pheromone technology was well received by the farmers due its effective nature. The farmer from the other blocks of Krishnagiri has also been made aware of the performance of IPM technology particularly the pheromone traps. Prior to this technology, the only option available with the farmer was to spray chemical insecticides. Mr. Nagaraj, progressive farmers resorted to four rounds o spray of insecticides. When he started to use the pheromone traps for mass trapping the population load was down and this enable his bring down the application of insecticides to two rounds which could save his resources

5. Impact

   Due to the continuous effort taken by KVK this technology reached to wider areas. Different extension activities like Method demonstration, Field demonstration, field visits, and publishing extension literatures were done. KVK was able to create the awareness about the symptoms in the leaves which earlier was lacking. Because of this the farmers were able to identify the symptoms much earlier and are able to take up corrective measures. Through trainings to input dealers on the management of this pest wider publicity was given. The adoption percentage is about 60 percentages now from a meager value of 5 percentages.

MASTIGUARD FOR CLEAN MILK PRODUCTION

1. Situation analysis/Problem statement

   In Krishnagiri district, farmers rear crossbred dairy cows under semi-intensive system and mainly maintained by small and marginal farmers. Mastitis has been and continues to be recognized as one of the major disease problems concerning the dairy industry. It is also one of the most costly diseases confronting the dairy farmer. Unlike the clinical mastitis, in sub clinical mastitis there is neither visual abnormality in milk nor in mammary gland. Therefore, knowledge of routine physical examination of udder and diagnostic screening tests for early detection of mastitis and proper treatment of affected animal is one of the paramount importance in order to minimize losses encountered due to sub clinical as well as clinical mastitis. In a dairy cow, if one quarter is affected, there will a loss of 30% of the milk production capacity.

   Subclinical mastitis is more prevalent than mastitis. Somatic cell count is a useful predictor of intra mammary infection and therefore, an important component of milk in assessment of aspects of quality, hygiene and mastitis control. In Krishnagiri district most dairy farmers were unaware of the latest technologies and clean milk production practices to prevent subclinical mastitis/mastitis

2. Plan, Implement and Support

   To overcome the problems faced by the farmers and to create awareness among the farmers Front Line demonstrations was taken up to demonstrate the use of Mastiguard (Teat protect Spray and TANUCHEK SCC kit) and Clean milk production practices in comparison with farmers practice at farmers level to prevent and control Subclinical mastitis/ mastitis in Krishnagiri district during 2018 -19, 2019-20 and 2020-21. Demonstrations was conducted in 40 locations at Kaveripatinam and Krishnagiri block during these periods.

Technology Demonstrated:

Post milking Teat protect spray
Detection of Subclinical Mastitis using TANUHCEK SCC Kit

Efforts of Krishi Vigyan Kendra in clean milk production

Webinar conducted on Scientific Dairy farming and created awareness on Mastitis management and its control, Ethno veterinary practices for better udder health and hygiene during World Milk day 2021. About 212 farmers participated during the programme

Conducted on and off campus training, Skill/Vocational training and also through other linkage programmes, where 200 farmers benefitted

2. Output

   Demonstration of Mastiguard with Clean milk production practices has increased average Milk yield by 6%, 10.17% and 9.01% in 2018-19 , 2019-20 and 2020-21 respectively. The somatic cell count was higher in farmers practice (5.1 lakhs , 4.4 lakhs and 3.8 lakhs during 2018-19, 2019-20 and 2020-21 respectively) when compared with demonstration (2.3 lakhs during 2018-19 ,1.2 lakhs during 2019-20 and 1.1 lakhs during 2020-21).

   Incidence of Sub-Clinical Mastitis was lower (10% during 2018-19) or no incidence during 2019-20, and 2020-21 when compared to farmer’s practice

Performance of Demonstration on Milk Yield and incidence of Subclinical mastitis

Parameters 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21
Using Mastiguard Farmer’s practice Using Mastiguard Farmer’s practice Using Mastiguard Farmer’s practice
Average Milk Yield (in Liters) 9.97 9.35 10.31 9.38 9.34 8.57
Average Somatic Cell count (in Lakhs) 2.3 5.1 1.2 4.4 3.8 1.1
Incidence of Sub-Clinical Mastitis (in %) 10 30 Nil 30 Nil 30

4. Outcome

   Farmers realized net income of about Rs.21614, Rs.30586 and Rs.22814 (2018-19, 2019-20 and 2020-21 respectively) with the use of Mastiguard technology and by adopting clean milk production practices.

   Hence the farmers realized higher benefit cost ratio of 1.76, 2.46 and 1.97 during 2018-19, 2019-20 and 2020-21 when compared to farmers practice with Benefit cost ratio of 1.32, 1.86 and 1.53 during 2018-19, 2019-20 and 2020-21 respectively. The higher economic return might be due to change in management practices in udder health and hygiene by dairy farmers.

5. Impact

   Demonstration of using Mastiguard for control of subclinical mastitis with clean milk production practices has increased the milk yield and income of farmers. Also, by adopting this technology and good management practices the somatic cell count was reduced and the incidence of subclinical mastitis was lowered, which reduced the chances of mastitis in dairy cows.

   The cost for treatment of Rs.3500-4500 can be saved by adopting the technology. KVK had continuing its efforts For large scale adoption of management practices in clean milk production with Mastiguard technology through trainings. Method demonstrations and linkage programmes.

HIGH INCOME FROM LITTLE MILLET VARIETY ATL1

1. Situation analysis/Problem statement

   Little millet is an important food crop in some part of the Krishnagiri district. It is cultivated in an area of 50 ha as rainfed condition only. Due to the repeated cultivation of old traditional varieties the yield was low. So, the farmers need some high yielding short duration varieties for higher production. Also, the new short duration varieties of little millet should be resistant to pest and disease. Hence, it could be sown as rainfed conditions. So, a FLD was conducted during 2021-22 on demonstration of Little Millet variety ATL 1 suitable for Krishnagiri district which is of short duration, drought tolerant, pest and disease resistance with high yielding type.

2. Plan, Implement and Support

   During 2021-22, Front line demonstrations were conducted in Indira Nagar village of Bargur block in Krishnagiri district. In this FLD also farmers were supplied with the required seeds, bio-fertilizers and supported with the technical guidance. On campus and off campus training programmes were conducted to impart knowledge and skills on ICM among the farmers. During the training programmes and field visits emphasis was given on ICM technologies.

3. Output

   The Frontline demonstrations results showed that the highest yield was recorded in adoption of Little Millet variety ATL 1 variety (1.49Qtl/ha) followed by farmer’s practice. The net return was highest in Little Millet variety ATL 1 variety demonstrated field was (Rs. 32,030) than compared to the farmers practice (Rs. 14,050). Yield increase percentage was 25.05 in Little Millet variety ATL 1 variety compare to local variety.

4. Outcome

   From the FLD conducted during the 2021-22 it was found that Little Millet variety ATL 1 variety was best suited for the Krishnagiri district. The variety Little Millet variety ATL 1 variety is short duration, short duration, drought tolerant, pest and disease resistance with high yielding type performed. It comes well up in rainfed condition.

5. Impact

   The Little Millet variety ATL 1 variety was well received by the farmers due its short duration nature and high yielding in nature. The farmers from the other blocks of Krishnagiri has also been made aware of the suitability and performance of the variety through various extension means viz., trainings, front line demonstrations and mass media coverage. The Monthly Zonal workshop meetings conducted by the department of agriculture was also used for the spread of the technology. Around 100 ha of area extended under the cultivation of Little Millet variety ATL 1 variety in Krishnagiri district.

MASTIGUARD FOR CONTROL OF SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS IN DAIRY COWS

In Krishnagiri district, the cattle and Buffalo population as per 19th livestock census is 3.62 and 0.18 lakhs respectively (Crossbred cattle population - 2.62 lakhs) and mainly small & marginal farmers possess more than 50 % of the cattle population. The farming system is of Semi intensive system representing mixed crop–livestock farming. Mostly the farmer’s rear crossbred Jersey and HF animal for higher milk production. Mastitis is a complex disease which causes inflammation of mammary glands results in change in milk and also in glandular tissues. Its affects animal health and quality of milk, also causes high economic loss to farmers. In a dairy cow, if one quarter is affected, there will a loss of 30% of the milk production capacity. In krishnagiri district the dairy farmers were unaware of the latest technologies and clean milk production practices to prevent subclinical mastitis/mastitis.

In Sub-clinical infections, there will be no change and appearance of milk and the udder but the production decreases. In such cases somatic cell count increases which alters the milk composition. Subclinical mastitis is more prevalent than mastitis. Somatic cell count is a useful predictor of intramammary infection and therefore, an important component of milk in assessment of aspects of quality, hygiene and mastitis control.

Plan, Implement and Support: To overcome the problems faced by the farmers and to create awareness among the farmers Front Line demonstrations was taken up to demonstrate the use of Mastiguard (Teat protect Spray and TANUCHEK SCC kit) and Clean milk production practices in comparison with farmers practice at farmers level to prevent and control Subclinical mastitis/ mastitis in Krishnagiri district during 2018-19 and 2019-20. Demonstrations was conducted in 20 locations and 10 locations during 2018-19 and 2019-20 respectively, spread over Kaveripatinam and krishnagiri block of krishnagiri district

1. Technology Demonstrated:

  • Post milking Teat protect spray
  • Detection of Subclinical Mastitis using TANUHCEK SCC Kit

To overcome the problems faced by the farmers and to create awareness among the farmers Front Line demonstrations was taken up to demonstrate the use of Mastiguard (Teat protect Spray and TANUCHEK SCC kit) and Clean milk production practices in comparison with farmers practice at farmers level to prevent and control Subclinical mastitis/ mastitis in Krishnagiri district during 2018-19, 2019-20 and 2020-21. Demonstrations was conducted in 40 locations at Kaveripatinam and Krishnagiri block during these periods

2. Efforts of Krishi Vigyan Kendra in clean milk production:

  • Conducted on and off campus training, skill /Vocational training and also through other linkage programmes namely ATMA trainings, dairy farming trainings conducted by INDSETI (Indian Bank Self Employment Training Institute), Krishnagiri and TVS - Srinivasan Services Trust (TVS-SST,Hosur). About 250 farmers would be benefitted by the trainings
  • Radio talk (AIR-FM Rainbow,Dharmapuri) on clean milk production & mastitis management in dairy cows during rainy season
  • TV talk(Makkal TV–Malarumbhoomi) was given exclusively on Mastitis management and its control, Ethno veterinary practices for better udder health and hygiene

OUTPUT:

Demonstration of Mastiguard with Clean milk production practices has increased average Milk yield by 6% and 10.17% in 2018-19 and 2019-20. The somatic cell count were higher in farmers practice (5.1 lakhs during 2018-19 and 4.4 lakhs during 2019-20) when compared with demonstration (2.3 lakhs during 2018-19 and 1.2 lakhs during 2019-20). Incidence of Sub-Clinical Mastitis was lower (10% during 2018-19) or no incidence during 2019-20, when compared to farmer’s practice (30 % during 2018-19 & 2019-20)

S.No Parameters 2018-19 2019-20
Using Mastiguard Farmers practice Using Mastiguard Farmers practice
1 Average Milk Yield (in Litres) 9.97 9.35 10.31 9.38
2 Average Somatic Cell count (in Lakhs) 2.3 5.1 1.2 4.4
2 Incidence of Sub-Clinical Mastitis (in %) 10 30 Nill 30

OUTCOME:

Farmers earned net income of about Rs.21614 and Rs.30586 (2018-19 & 2019-20) with the use of Mastiguard and adopting clean milk production practices and with their practice they earned Rs. 10178 and Rs.20856 (2018-19 and 2019-20).

Hence the farmers realized higher benefit cost ratio of 1.76 & 2.46 during 2018-19 and 2019-20 when compared to farmers practice with Benefit cost ratio of 1.32 & 1.86 during 2018-19 and 2019-20 respectively. The higher economic return might be due to change in management practices in udder health and hygiene by dairy farmers.

IMPACT:

Demonstration of using Mastiguard for control of subclinical mastitis with clean milk production practices has increased the milk yield and income of farmers. Also, by adopting this technology and good management practices the somatic cell count was reduced and the incidence of subclinical mastitis was lowered, which reduced the chances of mastitis in dairy cows. The farmers felt that using Mastiguard prevent their dairy animal from mastitis occurrence and save them from treatment cost of Rs.3000-4000. The performance and the practices to be followed was spread to farmers through various training programmes by KVK, through linkage programmes (ATMA) and media (Radio and TV Talk) for large scale adoption of technology and practices.

PRAGATHI TURMERIC - BOON FOR WATER DEFICIT AREAS OF KRISHNAGIRI DISTRICT

Turmeric is one of the important spice and medicinal crop cultivated in Krishnagiri district in an area of 115 ha. In this district turmeric is cultivated in more area in Uthangarai and Mathur block mostly under coconut garden under irrigated condition. In some area’s turmeric is grown as an intercrop with mango, coconut and arecanut. The popular varieties cultivated in this area are Salem Local, BSR 2 Erode local. It is grown in red loamy soil under garden lands condition. It can be grown in diverse tropical conditions from sea level to 1500 mm above MSL within a temperature range of 20 to 30 degree Celsius. The soil is sandy loam with high content of gravel. Soil is medium in Phosphorous and Potassium where as low in Nitrogen.

The major problem faced by the farmers in this area is the scarcity of water. The average annual rainfall is 830 mm. Adding to this is the problem of distribution of rainfall. Seventy percentage of the rainfall is received during the North East monsoon season (August to December).Deficit in rainfall is received during the South west monsoon season (June – August),the period when the crop vegetative growth is at the maximum. Reduction in growth during this period is found not to be compensated at the later stage, leading to yield reduction. The borewell is the major source of irrigation. In most of the borewells the water is seen at a depth of 1000 feet. Turmeric is cultivated traditionally over the years and hence the farmers are hesitant to diversify to low water requiring crops. Transplanting was done during the first week of July.

Plan, Implement and Support: To overcome this problem of water deficiency KVK intervened to introduce less water requiring short duration Turmeric variety Pragathi. A OFT was conducted in Sulakkarai village of Uthankarai village cluster during 2018-19.Rhizomes were sown in Protrays during June 2018 in a community nursery and the farmers were given training on portray nursery production techniques.Followed by the OFT, demonstrations were conducted in 5 locations during 2019-2020 in Periyakottakulam village of Uthankkarai block.

1. The following Technologies were demonstrated through trainings:

  • Cultivation of short duration variety Pragathi
  • Protray nursery technique
  • Use of bio agents in the prevention of rhizome rot

OUTPUT:

The productivity of turmeric in the variety Pragathi was on par with the other varieties compared. The main advantage of this is the duration of Pragathi was 7 months compared to 10 months in other variety.

OUTCOME:

As a result of the intervention of KVK, viz. Method demonstrations, OFTs, FLDs, and trainings the farmers have got knowledge about the short duration variety to overcome the problem of water deficiency. More farmers have taken to the cultivation of this variety.

IMPACT:

Large scale awareness on this technology in increasing the income of the farmers lead to wider adaptation. Survey conducted by KVK revealed that this technology is being adopted by about 20 % of the farmers from a base of zero adoption in the selected villages. The awareness on the significance of curcumin content of the turmeric was imparted among the farmers. The bargaining capacity of the farmers in marketing improved.

HIGH INCOME FROM FINGER MILLET VARIETY CO 15

Finger millet is an important staple rainfed crop in Krishnagiri district. It is cultivated in an area of 42,349 ha. It is cultivated in rainfed as well as in irrigated condition. About 80 percent area under rain fed condition. Even though the ragi cultivated is in larger area, the productivity is very low due to the reasons like repeated cultivation of existing old varieties, pest and diseases out break and droughts. Long duration varieties with higher productivity such as Paiyur 1, MR-1 and MR 6 are grown by the farmers. Although sowing of finger millet can be taken up from 2nd week of June to end of August, productivity with long duration varieties goes down with delayed planting especially under rainfed situations.

As an alternative the short duration variety of about 100-110 days duration can give higher productivity and profitability to the farmers in rainfed conditions of Krishnagiri district. In case of delay in monsoon up to 4 weeks, medium duration varieties are needed while in case of further delay, short duration varieties are needed. Also, the short duration varieties of finger millet should be tolerant / resistant to blast disease that could be sown till August under rainfed conditions. Hence a FLD was conducted during 2019- 20 on demonstration of ragi varieties CO15 suitable for Krishnagiri district which is of blast resistant, short duration, drought resistant and high yielder.

Plan, Implement and Support: During 2019 -20, Front line demonstrations were conducted in Sinthagampalli village of Bargur block in Krishnagiri district. In this FLD also farmers were supplied with the required seeds and biocontrol agents and biofertilizers and supported with the technical guidance. On campus and off campus training programmes were conducted to impart knowledge and skills on ICM among the farmers. During training programmes and field visits emphasis was given on ICM technologies.

OUTPUT:

The Front-line demonstrations results showed that the highest yield was recorded in adoption of Ragi variety CO15 variety (11.80 qtl/ha) followed by farmers practice. The net return was highest in Ragi CO15 demonstrated field (Rs. 18,040)than compared to the farmers practice (Rs. 10,596). Yield increase percentage was 16.62 in Ragi CO 15 compare to local variety.

OUTCOME:

From the FLD conducted during the 2019-20 it was found that the ragi variety CO15 was best suited for the Krishnagiri district. The variety CO15 is short duration, blast resistant and drought tolerant and performed well in rainfed condition.

IMPACT:

The variety CO15 was well received by the farmers due its short duration nature and high yield besides blast resistant character. The farmers from the other blocks of krishnagiri has also been made aware of the suitability and performance of the variety through various extension means viz., trainings, front line demonstrations and mass media coverage. The Monthly Zonal workshop meetings conducted by the department of agriculture was also used for the spread of the technology. Around 500 ha of area extended under the cultivation of CO 15 in Krishnagiri district.

FARM MECHANISATION IN PADDY CULTIVATION

Though mango being the major fruit crop of this district, paddy is also being cultivated throughout the district with the area of 25,000 ha. As far as paddy cultivation is concerned, the major problems faced by the farmers are: Irrigation water availability, Labour scarcity and Pest and disease problems. Among these constraints, Labour availability stands as a primary hurdle in the path of the farming in our district.

The major causes for the labour scarcity for the agricultural activities in this district may be attributed to the following reasons:

1. Technology Demonstrated:

  • Bangalore being the neighboring metropolitan city situated in western fringe of the district, it attracts almost half of the district’s labour force for its higher lucrative wages.
  • Besides, the local competition for labour also increased due to industrialization in the nearby areas.
  • Krishnagiri district is receiving only 852mm of annual average rainfall which results in the filling of reservoirs present in this district. The areas which get irrigation water from these reservoirs are being utilized for the paddy cultivation by the farmers. The one of the reservoir which always supplying irrigation water for cultivation is KRP (Krishnagiri Reservoir Project) dam. As soon as the water is released from the reservoir, the paddy cultivation starts simultaneously in all the areas which results in acute labour shortage for the various operations.
  • The employment guarantee scheme of the Government also attracts major portion of the available labours which results in acute labour shortage for the agricultural operations.

Our KVK conducted PRA at Periyamuthur village of Kaveripatinam block and the surrounding paddy areas during 2007. In this block farmers were cultivating paddy in around 450 ha. As soon as the water is released from the reservoir, the paddy cultivation starts simultaneously in all the areas which results in acute labour shortage for various operations. As the result of PRA conducted most of the farmers cultivating paddy faces labour shortage. So, our KVK conducted a OFT on Paddy Transplanter in Krishnagiri district to overcome the problem.

TECHNOLOGICAL INTERVENTION

To solve this major labour scarcity problem in paddy cultivation, our KVK conducted On Farm Testing to ‘Evaluate the usage of Paddy Transplanter’ in the existing localized situation during 2007-08. In this OFT, the conventional method of transplanting, (Line) Row planting and the Planting by Transplanter were compared for their labour saving efficiency and time management. Ten farmers were selected for the OFT at Shanthi Nagar village and were supplied with the technological inputs.

Technical details about Paddy Transplanter machine:
  • Easy to operate: Women labour also can operate the transplanter with ease.
  • Time saving: Two and half hours will be enough to transplant one acre of land.
  • Labour saving: One man and two women labours are enough to plant one acre.
  • Less seed rate : 15 kg seed will be enough to plant one acre of land compared to the conventional method of planting where it is around 60 kg.
  • Uniform spacing: 24 x 14 cm or 24 x 17 cm is maintained.
  • Plants are planted with uniform depth ensures the uniform growth
  • Weeding operation is easy because of the uniform plant spacing
  • Plant population can be maintained uniformly
  • Usage of Mat nursery seedlings ensures the highest germination percentage
  • Fuel requirement: 1.25 litre of diesel is required for one acre planting
  • Engine power: 4HP
Nursery Management:
  • Preparation of Mat Nursery: 21 cm x 40 cm mat prepared
  • Irrigation Management : Daily watering 1 hour
  • Nutrient Management : Sufficient fertilizers applied
  • Pest and Disease management : We found GLH and leaf spot, spray 1.5 gm/tank of DANTOP and 20 gm/tank of BEAM
Main field Management:
  • Land preparation: Puddle the field with tiller 4 times and allow to set the soil
  • Transplanting using Transplanter
  • Irrigation Management
  • Nutrient Management
  • Weed Management
  • Pest Management
  • Disease management
  • Harvesting

RESULT OF OFT

Transplanting by Transplanter reduces the cost by 27%. Transplanter can cover 1 ha. in 6.25 hrs. with the help of 1 male and 2 female labours compared to conventional method of transplanting which need 30 female in 8 hrs. From the OFT the paddy transplanting by transplanter increased the number of tiller per hill, reduced the seed rate and increase in BC ratio compared to manual transplanting were observed.

The results obtained from the OFT showed that the cost of planting for one acre land calculated to be Rs. 500/- against the conventional method of planting which costs about Rs. 1,000/-. The cost saving of 75% and the time saving of around 5 hours per day was observed towards the transplanting. It was found to be good enough to overcome the problem of labour scarcity in paddy cultivation.

FRONT LINE DEMONSTRATION

After the OFT, the farmers have also got convinced of the technology and were enthusiastic about opting for farm mechanization in paddy cultivation. So, during the following years the KVK conducted a Front Line Demonstrations in 10 ha in the KRP Dam irrigated areas and Kaveripattinam blocks of Krishnagiri district to extend this technology to wider area.

S.No Year FLD operated villages Area
1 2008-09 Kurumpatti,Kaveripattinam,Thathampatti,
Nadupaiyur & Kannukarankottai
10 ha
2 2009-10 Pannanthur 10 ha
3 2010-11 Samanapalli 2 ha
4 2011-12 Pothapuram 4 ha
5 2012-13 Periyamuthur 1 ha
6 2013-14 Moongilputhur 2 ha
7 2014-15 Kalvehalli 2 ha

Apart from the above demonstrated area we have assisted to conduct the demonstration under our direct guidelines.

S.No Year FLD operated villages Area
1 2008-09 Palacode, Dharmapuri district 10 ac
Regional Research Station, Paiyur (For research purpose) 8 x 12 m
2 2009-10 Aarur, Dharmapuri district 12 ac
Paiyanapalli 20 ac
Ginjupalli 3 ac
Regional Research Station, Paiyur (For research purpose) 8 x 12 m
3 2012-13 IANWARM scheme, Samanapalli, Agaram, Uddanapalli 30 acre
KVK Karur 1 acre
4 2011-12 IANWARM scheme with RRS Paiyur& VST motors 150 ac
5 2012-13 Periyamuthur & Pannathur 10 ha
6 2014-15 Kundalapatty, Kaveripattinam 50 ha

Palacode demonstration conducted with Agricultural Department and Agricultural Engineering department of Dharmapuri district

Paiyanapalli demonstration conducted in presence of Krishnagiri District Collector and Department of Agriculture & Agricultural Engineering and was covered in TV News.

Villages: Kursampatti, Kannukarankottai, Nadupaiyur, Periyamuthur, Kurumpatti, Thathampatti

RESULT OF FLD:

The results obtained from the FLD showed that usage of Paddy Transplanter for the planting reduces the time by 113.33%, labour by 73.21 % and cost by 34.09 %. Transplanter can cover 1 ha. in 6.25 hrs. with the help of 1 male and 2 female labours compared to conventional method of transplanting which need 30 female in 8 hrs.

Trainings

Various training programmes were conducted to disseminate this excellent labour saving technology throughout the district. On-campus and Off-campus trainings were conducted in various villages, viz., Palacode, Kalliyur, Paiyanapalli, Pannanthur, Uddanapalli, Guntharapalli and Hosur with more than 500 no. of beneficiaries. More number of trainings conducted for Extension Functionaries also, in the department of Agriculture and Agricultural Engineering. The beneficiary farmers and farm women were taught about the Mat nursery preparation and its maintenance, operating instructions of the transplanter and the other intercultural operations in paddy cultivation.

Outcome of the technology disseminated and its economic impact:

From the results it was observed that the yields recorded in paddy transplanting by transplanter, transplanting in lines manually and transplanting manually were 7350, 6926 and 6168 kg/ha respectively.
The cost of cultivation was higher in conventional transplanting and in line planting than the transplanting by Transplanter which were recorded as Rs.35,190, Rs.34,551 and Rs.33,365 respectively.
Transplanting by transplanter recorded the higher net return compared to line planting and conventional planting which were recorded as Rs. 27,859, Rs.23,144 and Rs. 16,196 respectively.

HORIZONTAL SPREAD:

On seeing the success of technology, a progressive farmer Mr. Sundaram from Shanthi Nagar, had purchased the Transplanter at the cost of Rs.1,38,000/- and is using it for his own lands and hiring it to the farmers of neighboring lands. He charges Rs.500/- per hour by letting his transplanter for hiring and totally he earns around Rs.50,000/- per season as an additional income. The area has been increased up to 75 acres by using paddy transplanter across the district in every season. In forth coming seasons we have planned to increase the area up to 150 acres.

He is also planning to take up the mat nursery preparation which is a mandatory for the transplanter in a commercial way. By seeing the success of technology imbibed Mr. Sundaram, other farmers are also in the process of purchasing the transplanter. Another farmer Mr. Mani from Aarur also have purchased the Transplanter and using for his own purpose and getting extra remuneration by hiring it to others. With the technical guidance of KVK, most of the paddy farmers are very much interested in using transplanter in paddy cultivation. Hence the area has been increased up to 200 acres by using paddy transplanter across the district in every season.

DEVELOPMENT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN FOOD PROCESSING

PROCESS:

KVK has conducted various training programmes for farm women in home science in the areas covering entrepreneurship development programme, nutrition, preservation of fruits and vegetables in times of glut. Our district has substantial area under horticultural crops. Hence our KVK concentrated training to the rural youth on fruit and vegetable preservation. The role of women in the preservation of fruits and vegetables is of atmost significant. It was found that there was good scope to generate income by women which can be done by participation of them in skill training. Keeping this objective in view KVK organized vocational training on post harvest technology.

TECHNOLOGY:

The training on post harvest management, harvesting, handling, grading and packaging, storage and value addition in horticultural crops. This programme was conducted in the month of April 2009. It was 15 days programme and 11 youth, SHG women of Hosur participated in the training. Technical skills on processsing and value addition were imparted through practical demonstration, training and exposure visit.

BACKGROUND:

This training has been taken advantage by Mrs. Sangeetha, W/O Mr. Murali a SHG women, Avalepatti, Hosur, She participated in 15 days training and made her effort and interest in the preparation of variety of pickles in a small scale. An working capital of Rs. 50000 was availed through Karur Vyasa bank, Hosur on 30.04.2010. With this amount she started the commercial production of variety of pickles.

INTERVENTION:

After the acquisition of the training skills related to fruit & vegetable preservation, she purchased the vegetables at the local market and neighbouring markets and prepared variety of pickles. The products were sold in the brand name of “Karthick foods” to departmental stores, public meetings and SHG exhibition. Our KVK has also tied with DIC, Krishnagiri and submitted project proposal under PMEGP to avail for the financial assistance of Rs 1.0 lakhs for the enlargement of enterprise and employment generation to other rural youths. The member has also availed S.S.I registration for the easy marketing of the food products.

IMPACT:

She is successfully running the pickle unit and earns an average income of Rs. 3000 to 3500 per month to meet the day to day expenditure and she is happy to do. She is a role model to other rural youths.

Management of Mango Fruitfly:

Mango is a major fruit crop of this district occupying about 35,000 ha. The yield loss in mango may be attributed to many factors. Among them fruit fly attack alone causes 20 – 30 % yield loss. The farmers do not take any exclusive measures in controlling this pest, because of the ignorance of its management. Hence an OFT was conducted during 2005-2006 and the type of pheromone trap for management of fruit fly was assessed.

After the OFTs, demonstrations were conducted during 2006-07, 2007-08, 2008-09, 2009-10 and 2010-11. The trainings were also conducted in all blocks of the district to create awareness on fruit fly. The incidence and yield loss were explained among the mango growers. This lead to greater impact on management of fruit flies. The control of fruit flies is particularly difficult on small orchards because of the constant immigration of flies from near by area.e of his leisure hours in the evening to make the candles to fetch an additional income. The entrepreneur is clearing his doubts with the help of KVK scientists then and there.

Scientists from IIHR, Bangalore visited the demonstration field and collaborative demonstrations were conducted in another 60 ha. This made an impact among the farmers and huge number of enquires came from the farmers on pheromone trap for fruit fly. The technical presentations were regularly done during the meetings of agricultural officials. Commissioner of Agriculture allotted about 1 lakh rupees for conducting FLD under ATMA. Also the farmers are being supplied with fruit fly traps with a nominal cost of Rs.66 / trap which is being gaining popularity among the mango growers of this district. So far the area covered under the management of fruit fly has got extended upto 1000 ha.

Impact:

The awareness on use of Methyl euginal pheromone trap at the appropriate time was created for effective control of fruitfly at appropriate time. 500 farmers adopted the technology in Krishnagiri taluk during the reporting period. There is a plan to control the fruitfly at large scale on community approach and through mango growers association. This year Commissioner of Agriculture allotted about 1 lakh rupees for conducting FLD in all 10 blocks and is in progress.