System of Rice Intensification


What is SRI ?

              The SRI is an alternative to the traditional way of flooded rice cultivation and is showing promise in addressing the problems of water scarcity, high energy usage and environmental degradation. SRI involves few major components viz., using younger seedlings, square planting, irrigation by alternate wetting and drying, weeding though cono/rotary weeder, LCC based N management.

Mention the principles & practices of SRI ?

  •      1. Raise the mat nursery for plant establishment

  •      2. Seed rate 7-8kg/ha for single seedling per hill

  •      3. Transplant young seedlings aged 15 days having 2-3 leaves with seed attached to the root

  •      4. Square planting of 22.5 x 22.5 cm (9 x 9 inch)

  •      5. Use leaf colour chart for the determining the time for top dressing N fertilizer

  •      6. Irrigation only to moist the soil in the early period of 10 days. Restoring irrigation to a          maximum depth of 2.5cm after development of hairline cracks in the soil until panicle initiation

  •      7. Moving the Rotary weeder / Conoweeder with forward and backward motion to bury the          weeds and as well to aerate the soil at 7-10 days interval from 10-15 days after planting on          either direction of the rows and column

  • What is Organic farming ?

                 Organic farming is a system, which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetic inputs (such as fertilizers, pesticides, hormones, feed additives etc.,) and to the maximum extent feasible relies upon crop rotations, crop residues, animal manures, off-farm organic waste, mineral grade rock additives and biological system of nutrient mobilization and plant protection.

    What are the benefits of Organic farming ?

         1. It helps in maintaining environment health by reducing the level of pollution

         2. It reduces human and animal health hazards by reducing the level of residues in the product

         3. It helps in keeping agricultural production at a higher level and makes it sustainable

         4. It reduces the cost of agricultural production and also improves the soil health

         5. It ensures optimum utilization of natural resources for short-term benefit and helps in          conserving them for future generation

         6. It not only saves energy for both animal and machine, but also reduces risk of crop failure/p>

         7. It improves the soil physical properties such as granulation, and good tilth, good aeration,          easy root penetration and improves water-holding capacity

         8. It improves the soil's chemical properties such as supply and retention of soil nutrients, and          promotes favorable chemical reactions

    What is green manuring and mention some of the green manure crops?

                 Green manuring can be defined as practice of ploughing or turning into the soil undecomposed green plant tissues for the purpose of improving physical structure as well as fertility of the soil. Sunhemp, Sesbania, Crotalaria, Pillipesara, Cowpea etc are good for green manuring.

    What is green leaf manuring?

                 Green leaf manuring refers to turning into the soil green leaves and tender green twigs collected from shrubs and trees grown on bund, wasteland and nearby forest areas. Glyricidia, Pongamia, Leucina are common green leaf manuring crops.

    What is compost?

                 Compost is well decomposed organic wastes like plant residues, animal dung, urine earth from cattle sheds and waste fodder etc.

    How compost is prepared?

                 Compost making is the process of decomposing organic wastes in a pit. Site for compost making is selected should be at a high level and water should not pond during monsoon season. Pit should be of 3' depth and 6' to 8' width. Length may be of any convenient size. The process is as follows :

         1. Make slurry of the cattle dung with water

         2. Prepare 6" layer of organic wastes-plant residues, sweepings from the cattle          shed,waste fodder, dried plants stalks and leaves etc. and sprinkle water to just moisten it.          (Over watering should be avoided)

         3. Cover with the layer with urine earth and cattle dung slurry

         4. Add 5 to 10 kg of super phosphate for every 10 tons of organic wastes

         5. Repeat the process of putting such layers till the pit is full

         6. Close the pit with urine earth, waste fodder and then heap the soil till it gets convex shape          (about 1 to 1.5' above the ground) so that the rainwater rolls away

         7. After six months compost is ready to apply to the fields

    The pit can be filled up if sufficient organic wastes are available. Otherwise a temporary partition can be made in the pit with bamboos or stalks and the pit can be filled up over time filling each partitioned area as and when the material is available for composting.

    How to care of newborn calf?

                 To feed the Colostrum for newborn calf within 30 minutes of birth. Quantity of colostrum feeding is 1/10th of calf body weight, up to maximum of 2-2.5 litre per day for three days.

    Mention the medication schedule for young chicks ?

                 Medication Schedule for young chicks, 1st & 2nd day - Electrolytes,vitamins; 3rd to 7th day - Antibiotics; 17th to 21st day - Coccidiostat.

    What is the comfort temperature for livestock?

                 For better production the comfort temperature for livestock is 65-75oF.

    How to control the monocot weeds in banana crop?

                 To control monocot weeds in banana spray systemic herbicide Glyphosate 10ml + 20g of ammonium sulphate per litre of water at 3-4 leaf state of weeds.

    How to control the pest leaf folder in paddy by biological methods?

                 To manage leaf folder in Paddy release Trichogramma Chilonis @ 5 cc/ha (1,00,000 nos.) at weekly intervals, 3 times from 42 days onwards. Application of botanicals especially NSKE @ 5%.



    Copyright ICAR-KVK, Krishnagiri  ALL RIGHTS RESERVED